This system is in contrast with the ZW sex-determination system found in birds, some insects, many reptiles, and other animals, in which the heterogametic sex is female.
A temperature-dependent sex determination system is found in some reptiles.
, two of the chromosomes, called the X chromosome and Y chromosome, code for sex.
In this process, an X chromosome and a Y chromosome act to determine the sex of offspring, often due to genes located on the Y chromosome that code for maleness.
Offspring have two sex chromosomes: an offspring with two X chromosomes will develop female characteristics, and an offspring with an X and a Y chromosome will develop male characteristics.
A single gene (SRY) present on the Y chromosome acts as a signal to set the developmental pathway towards maleness.
Presence of this gene starts off the process of virilization.
This and other factors result in the sex differences in humans.
The cells in females, with two X chromosomes, undergo X-inactivation, in which one of the two X chromosomes is inactivated.The inactivated X chromosome remains within a cell as a Barr body.The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), and some plants (Ginkgo).In this system, the sex of an individual is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes (gonosomes).Females have two of the same kind of sex chromosome (XX), and are called the homogametic sex.Males have two distinct sex chromosomes (XY), and are called the heterogametic sex.